RESULTS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PERFORMED FOLLOWING A PUBLIC ASSIGNMENT
"METHODOLOGICAL, INFORMATION AND ANALYTICAL SUPPORT OF PARTICIPATION OF THE FEDERAL FORESTRY AGENCY IN THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ACTIVITIES RELATED TO CLIMATE CHANGE"
In the course of the work performed, the results of the current sessions of the international negotiating process related to climate change have been analyzed and appropriate recommendations have been given. The main novels established by the Paris Agreement have been analyzed in terms of ensuring transparency in the implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
An important event of 2016, in which took part an expert from the
Saint Petersburg Forestry Research Institute, was the Paris Agreement, which laid the foundations for a global climate policy for the Post-Kyoto period.
The Research and Development (R&D) result will be directly used in the process of preparing the position of the Russian Federation on the actions in the forestry sector of the economy according to the main items in the international negotiation process agenda related to climate change, supporting activities of the working group under the Federal Forestry Agency on developing a methodology for the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the forests of the Russian Federation, supporting management decisions related to the climate policy in the Russian forestry sector.
"EFFECT ASSESSMENT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES ON THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE CONTROLLED FORESTS OF THE SOUTH TAIGA IN THE EUROPEAN-URAL PART OF RUSSIA"
Based on the conducted studies, provided an overall assessment of the effects of forestry activities on the carbon cycle management in managed forests of the studied zonal-regional geodetic chain in the southern taiga of the European-Ural part of Russia, as well as other forest vegetation zones, taking into account scientific research carried out by co-authors, in different time horizon (short-term and long-term effects).
The R&D results make specific the theoretical understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle biotic components in forest ecosystems of the southern taiga of the European-Ural part of Russia and will be a theoretical foundation for the development and implementation of a strategy for adapting Russia's forestry to expected climate change.
"SCENARIOS DEVELOPMENT FOR ADAPTATION OF THE FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN MANAGED FORESTS ON THE NORTHWEST OF THE EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA DUE TO EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGES"
Based on the analysis of the world experience in the scenarios development for the adaptation of forest management systems due to climate change, the most likely changes in the forest cover that require adaptive measures have been assessed.
By analyzing the dynamics of the forest fund over the last 30-40 years, threats in the sphere of forest use have been identified, effects chains have been developed and a scheme of cause-effect relationships, that takes into account the risk factors caused by climate change, has been proposed.
Taking into account main climate scenarios, 3 scenarios for the forestry sector have been developed: scenario Observed Climate Change (current state); scenario B1 SRES (Special report on emission scenarios); scenario A2 SRES (Special report on emission scenarios). A set of adaptation measures is proposed for all key factors in each scenario.
"SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ECONOMIC SAFETY CONCEPT IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR OF ECONOMICS UNDER CLIMATE CHANGES AND ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD"
A forestry management mechanism has been proposed for maintaining the forestry sector safety under conditions of climate change and increase of anthropogenic load. Such mechanism will contribute to the early development of a balanced approach for resistance to external threats.
The indicators are set to the selected criteria that meet the requirements of the economic security of the forestry sector.
"DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE APPLICATION OF MODERN HERBICIDES IN CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF PLANTING LANDS DURING AGROTECHNICAL AND FORESTRY CARE OF PINE AND SPRUCE PLANTATION CREATED WITH BALL-ROOTED PLANTING STOCK ON THE FORESTRY FUND LANDS"
Calculation and task sheets on the use of herbicides in the agrotechnical care of pine and spruce plantations have been developed.
The research results will be applied in the area of the intensification of reproduction of economically valuable coniferous timber stands.
Calculation and task sheets are recommended for wide industrial implementation in the taiga zone and coniferous-deciduous forest zone of the European part of the Russian Federation.
"DEVELOPMENT OF PRACTICAL GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE SPECIES, THAT LOST THEIR NATURAL DISTRIBUTION AREA IN THE TERRITORY OF THE NORTH WEST OF RUSSIA, DURING REFORESTATION"
A list of the most promising economically valuable species that have lost the natural distribution area in the territory of the North-West of Russia and can be used for reforestation has been compiled. Their economical value has been estimated.
The register of preserved forest areas of economically valuable tree species that lost their natural distribution area on the territory of the North-West of Russia, with a description of the peculiarities of their growth, has been generated.
The condition of the remaining areas with forest plantations of economically valuable species, that lost the natural distribution area in the territory of the North-West of Russia, and the possibility of creating new areas by reforestation have been assessed.
The most promising for the North-West territory of Russia are: siberian pine, pedunculate oak, common ash, small-leaved lime, norway maple.
Identified promising species and conditions for their renewal will expand the list of economically valuable species reproduced on the North-West territory of Russia during reforestation.
"REVIEW OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF USING RENEWABLE SOURCES OF WOOD ENERGY AS FUEL ON MUNICIPAL POWER PLANTS DEPENDING ON THE FORESTRY MANAGEMENT MODEL"
As a result, reviews of the main global initiatives and agreements have been made, as well as the experience of European countries, North America, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands, Belarus, Ukraine in the use of forest wood biomass; analysis of various world forestry models (extensive, intensive, plantation) and existing methods of growing and harvesting wood biomass has been performed; the expediency of using different forest growth methods under different forestry models and analysis of the main existing methods for processing forest wood biomass have been analyzed; the main data on the characteristics of different types of wood biofuel for the conditions of Northern Europe and the North-West of Russia have been presented.
For the first time in Russia, an economic evaluation of the efficiency of growing forests to obtain raw materials for bioenergy by extensive, intensive and plantation models of forestry management has been performed. Since Russia has the extensive forestry model, the use of biofuels can be considered as one of the essential factors for increasing the economical efficiency.
"STUDYING FEATURES AND DEVELOPING GUIDANCE FOR CREATION OF TRANSPORT FOREST INFRASTRUCTURE FOR ENSURING INTENSIVE USE AND REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS UNDER PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP"
A draft guidance on the creation of a transport forest infrastructure has been developed to ensure intensive use and reproduction of forests under public-private partnership.
The following drafts have been prepared: forest transport infrastructure roads classifier; standards of density of the necessary forest transport infrastructure in forests of various types, by road types; averaged values of the work construction cost per kilometer, depending on the soil and road type, taking into account the regional coefficients, as well as the mechanism of public-private partnership in creating transport forest infrastructure to ensure intensive use and reproduction of forests.
"DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW FIRE-EXTINGUISHING COMPOSITION THAT INCLUDES WETTING, FOAM-FORMING AND FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES"
For the first time, an experimental sample of an all-purpose fire-extinguishing composition has been developed that includes wetting, foam-forming and flame retardant properties that will improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of extinguishing forest fires. The characteristics of the new composition correspond to the requirements imposed by the technical design specification.
In the composition are used the components produced by national industry. Therefore, when put into production, its cost will not significantly exceed the cost of already produced fire extinguishing compounds.
The research results are contained in the application for an invention presented to the Federal Institute of Industrial Property (FIPS) in December of the reporting year.
Implementation of the research results in the practice of combating forest fires is possible in the regional specialized centers for ground and aviation forest protection services.
"CONDUCTING RESEARCH FOR THE SPECIFICATION OF THE WOOD SPECIES LIST AND PARAMETERS OF ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL REFORESTATION IN AREAS INTRODUCED BY THE ORDER OF THE MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION of December 23, 2014 No. 569"
By order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of December 23, 2014 No. 569, instead of the Middle-Taiga Area of the European part of the Russian Federation and the Priangar Area of Eastern Siberia, 7 forest areas have been established: Karelian, Baltic-Belozersky, Dvinsko-Vychegodsky, West Ural, Nizhneangarsky, Middle Angarsk and Verkhnelensky.
As a research result, a list of tree species for these forest areas and parameters of undergrowth and young growth for reforestation selection of methods corresponding to forest-growing conditions have been proposed; the requirements for planting material, criteria and requirements for young growth, the areas of which are to be attributed to lands occupied by forest plantations, are defined.
Keeping record of the justified parameters of tree species during reforestation will increase the economic efficiency by reducing the costs of reproduction of forests.
The R & D results can be used to improve the draft of the Reforestation Policy.
"DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE FOR THE FOREST PLANNING SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT AT THE MEMBER LEVEL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION"
The guidance on the forest planning system improvement at the member level of the Russian Federation has been developed.
The general assessment of the condition of forest planning in the forest sector of the regional economy has been presented.
The proposals on the improvement of existing forest planning documents at the member level of the Russian Federation, including those submitted by the member executive bodies, organizations, representatives of science and industry subordinated to the Federal Forestry Agency, are considered and analyzed, and guidance for the systematization and optimization of existing forest planning documents related to the presentation, justification and relevance of information on forests has been developed.
Proposals of changes to the standard forms of the current forest planning documents (forest plans and forestry regulations) have been presented.
The basis for improving and optimizing the forest planning system at the member level of the Russian Federation, that takes into account the sectoral rules and regulations, has been provided.
The R & D results will contribute to increasing the economic, environmental and social significance of planned activities, the effectiveness of their implementation at the member level of the Russian Federation. The results can be used in developing forest plans, forestry regulations, forest development projects, regional target programs of the members of the Russian Federation.
RESULTS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PERFORMED FOLLOWING PUBLIC CONTRACT
"PUBLIC CONTRACT No. IV-16-23 / 260, MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, TO DEVELOP SCIENTIFICALLY BASED METHODOLOGY AND FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR THE INTENSIFICATION OF USE AND REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS, AND PROPOSALS TO IMPROVE FOREST PROTECTION. TIME OF PERFORMANCE (2015-2016)"
As a result of the work carried out for the pilot Dvinsko-Vychegodsky taiga forest area, five drafts of the following main regulations were developed, regulating both the implementation of forest operations and planning activities in the forest: Rules of timber harvesting, Rules of forest care, Rules of reforestation, Procedure for calculating the allowable cutting area, and Order on the establishment of logging ages in accordance with the requirements of the intensive forestry model. Proposals for amending the existing documents concern both the general part and the annexes related to the normative part of the specified forest area. Over 100 revisions were made, which were discussed as among forestry and logging specialists as among the public concerned.
A financial and economic justification for the application of new standards (drafts of the Rules of timber harvesting, the Rules of forest care, the Rules of reforestation, Procedure for calculating the allowable cutting area, and Order on the establishment of logging ages) in the intensive forestry model and reproduction, which will allow us to assess the economic effect of the transition from the current model to the intensive model in the pilot regions.
The area of application of the results is the state forest management system, small, medium and large-scale forest entrepreneurship and forest farming.
"PUBLIC CONTRACT No. IV-16-23 / 323 dated May 11, 2016 FOR THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF FOREST RESOURCES ON THE TOPIC: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN FIELD OF EFFICIENCY OF FIRE SAFETY MEASURES IN FORESTS AND PREPARATION OF SCIENTIFICALLY BASED PROPOSALS ON FIRE SAFETY MEASURES AND PROVISION OF THE NECESSARY FIRE-FIGHTING FACILITIES FOR THE FOREST AREAS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION"
Scientifically grounded proposals on fire safety measures and fire-prevention arrangement of forests, that take into account the specifics of forest areas conditions of the Russian Federation, have been developed.
An assessment of the effectiveness of the proposed measures for forest fire protection, as well as the establishment of proposed fire safety rules for each forest area of the Russian Federation has been developed.
In the course of R & D, that used methods of system and statistical analysis, methods of mathematical modeling, scientifically sound proposals on fire safety measures and fire management of forests, taking into account the specific conditions of forest areas of the Russian Federation, draft fire safety rules in forests, and draft standards for firefighting of forests have been prepared.
The R & D results will make it possible to adjust fire prevention standards for forests, thereby optimizing the requirements for the fire safety measures, that take into account the specific conditions of forest areas of the Russian Federation, which will help to reduce costs or redistribute released resources to higher priority areas of the forest.